Modern enterprise security uses a layered identity approach for access to more sensitive networks, systems, applications and information. Sensitive data is normally protected using multi-factor authentication where, as well as user-id and password, a user is required to swipe a security badge into a reader. The security badge is a smart card that is likely to contain a digital certificate issued to the user by the enterprise.
After a user account has been provisioned to the systems in an enterprise access to resources is managed by an access management system. Identity management and access management are not necessarily interdependent. Enterprises often provision user accounts manually or use custom processes such as batch files or scripts. Whichever, provisioning method is used an access management system can be used to enforce the enterprise access rules.